Youth Perspectives on Privacy and Equality in Networked Spaces

Young People, Big Data, and the Networked Environment

Law and Policy


Youth Perspectives on Privacy and Equality in Networked Spaces

    • Teen’s Privacy Decisions about Photos on Social Media

Burkell, J., & Regan, P. (2018). The right to be forgotten and youth: Philosophical and psychological contexts. Human Rights Yearbook. Ottawa, Canada: Human Rights Research and Education Centre.

Johnson, M., Steeves, V., Shade, L., & Foran G. (2017). To share or not to share: How teens make privacy decisions about photos on social media. Ottawa, ON: Media Smarts.

Steeves, V. (2017). Snoops, bullies and hucksters: What rights do young people have in a networked environment? In N.A. Jennings and S.R. Mazzarella (Eds.), 20 Questions about Youth and Media, (2nd ed.). New York: Peter Lang.

  • Teens’ Perspectives on Defamation

Bailey, J. & Steeves, V. (2017). Defamation law in the age of the internet: Young people’s perspectives. Law Commission of Ontario.

  • #DisconnectionChallenge

Michaelson, V., and Steeves, V. (2020).  “I’ll use it differently now”: Using dual systems theory to explore youth engagement with networked technologies. Canadian Journal of Public Health 111: 1033-1040.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). (2017, August 28). Some teens put their phones down for a week and here is what happened. CBC Radio Ottawa Morning News. Retrieved from:

Young People, Big Data, and the Networked Environment

  • Networked Playgrounds and Toys

Regan, P. and Bailey, J. (2020) “Big Data, Privacy and Education Applications,” Education Law Journal 29 (1): 55-78.

Mackinnon, K., and Regan Shade, L. (Forthcoming 2020). “God Only Knows What It’s Doing to Our Children’s Brains”: A Closer Look at “Internet Addiction.” Jeunesses: Young People, Texts, Cultures. 

Steeves, V.  (2020). A Dialogic Analysis of Hello Barbie’s Conversations with Children. Big Data and Society 7 (1)

Smith, K., and Shade, L. (2018) The Internet of Toys: Digital Playgrounds for Children’s Data Collection. Big Data and Society 5(2): 1-12.

Chowdhury, W. (2018). Toys that talk to strangers: A look at the privacy policies of connected toys. In J. Kacprzyk (Ed.), Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing Series: Future Technologies Conference Proceedings. Basel, Switzerland: Springer.

Shade, L., R., & Smith, K., L. (Forthcoming). Children’s digital playgrounds as data assemblages: Problematics of privacy, personalization, and promotional culture. Big Data & Society, 5(2).

  • The Networked Classroom

Bailey, J., Burkell, J., Regan, P., and Steeves, V. (2020). “Children’s privacy is at risk with rapid shifts to online schooling under coronavirusThe Conversation.

Bailey, J. (2020) Interviewed by Globe and Mail, Caroline Alphonso, and quoted in “Debate continues over best way for teachers to educate students online”.

Regan, P., Bailey, J. (2019). Big data, privacy and education applicationsEducation and Law Journal .

Regan, P., and Steeves, V. (2019). “Education, privacy, and big data algorithms: Taking the persons out of personalized learning,” First Monday 24(11).

Regan, P. and Khwaja, E. (2019). “Mapping the Political Economy of Education Technology,” Policy Futures in Education.

Steeves, V., Regan, P. and Shade, L. (2018). Digital Surveillance in the Networked Classroom. In Jo Deakin, Emmeline Taylor and Aaron Kupchik (Eds.), The Palgrave International Handbook of School Discipline: Surveillance and Social Control (pp.445-466). London: Palgrave.

Regan, P. & Jesse, J. (2018). Ethical Challenges of Edtech, Big Data and Personalized Learning: 21st Century Student Sorting and Tracking. Ethics and Information Technology. (Forthcoming).

Steeves V., & Regan, P. (2018). Teaching digital citizenship in the networked classroom. International Journal of Public Administration in the Digital Age. (IJPADA)5(4).

Regan, P. (2017). Ethical and administrative policy concerns about use of Big Data in K-12 Education. Paper submission to the US Federal Trade Commission Education Technology Student Privacy and EdTech Workshop, Washington, DC, United States of America.

Bailey, J. (2017). From “zero tolerance” to “safe and accepting”: Surveillance & equality in the evolution of Ontario’s education & policyEducation Law Journal, 26(2):147-180.

Hare, C. (2017). Digital surveillance detrimental to learning, expert says. ATA News, 51. Retrieved from,-expert-says.aspx

Steeves, V.  (2017)  Terra Cognita: The surveillance of young peoples’ favourite websites. In T. Rooney and E. Taylor (Eds.), Surveillance and Childhood.  Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

Steeves, V. (2016). Teaching in a fishbowl: How surveillance is reshaping the networked classroom. Our Schools, Our Selves, 25(3):143-146.

Shade, L., & Singh, R. (2016). “Honestly, we’re not spying on kids”: School surveillance of young people’s social mediaSocial Media + Society, 2(4), 1-12.

Steeves, V. (2016). Swimming in the fishbowl: Young people, identity and surveillance in networked spaces.  In I. van der Ploeg and J. Pridmore (Eds.), Digitizing Identities: Doing Identity in a Networked World. London: Routledge.

  • Big Data and Algorithmic Discrimination (Networked Environment)

Posada, J., and Regan Shade, L. (2020).Platform Labour Discourse: How Hyr Targets the ‘Bucket List Generation.’”  Democratic Communiqué, 29(1).

Burkell, J., and Regan, P. (2020). “Voting Public: Leveraging Personal Information to Construct Voter Preference” in Big Data, Political Campaigning and the Law, ed by Janice Richardson, Norman Witzleb, and Moira Paterson. Routledge.

Regan Shade, L. (Forthcoming 2020/21). “Nudging Interventions in Regulating the Digital Gangsters in an Era of Friction-free Surveillance Capitalism,” in Affective Politics of Digital Media: Propaganda by Other Means, ed.Megan Boler and Elizabeth Davis. London: Routledge.

Regan Shade, L., Bailey, J., Burkell, J., Regan, P., and Steeves, V. (2020). Framing the challenges of digital inclusion for young Canadians. In E. Dubois and F. Martin-Bariteau (Eds.), Connected Canada: A Research and Policy Agenda for Digital Citizenship. University of Ottawa Press.

Burkell, J., and Regan, P. (2019). “Voter preferences, voter manipulation, voter analytics: policy options for less surveillance and more autonomy,” Internet Policy Review 8(4).

Shade, L., R., & Trusolino, M. (2018). “It’s the power, stupid”: Facebook’s unequal treatment of gendered hate speech. Canadian Yearbook for Human Rights. Ottawa: Human Rights Research and Education Centre.

Burkell, J., & Bailey, J. (2018). Unlawful distinctions?: Canadian human rights law and algorithmic bias. Canadian Yearbook for Human Rights. Ottawa: Human Rights Research and Education Centre.

Shade, L., Landry, N., & Teruelle, R. (2017). Twitter revolution or human revolution? Social media and social justice activism. In W. Antony, J. Antony & L. Samuelson (Eds.), Power and resistance: Critical thinking about Canadian social issues, (6th ed.), (pp. 406-430). Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood Publishing.

Bailey, J., & Shayan, S. (2016). Missing and murdered indigenous women crisis: Technological dimensions. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 28(2), 321.

Law and Policy

  • Tech-Facilitated Violence

Bailey, J. and Dong, J. (Forthcoming 2021). “Toward Survivor-Centred Outcomes for Targets of Privacy-Invasive TFVA: Assessing the equality-affirming impact of Jarvis” The Last Frontier: Digital Privacy and the Charter, Christopher Hunt and Robert Diab (eds). Thomson Reuters Press.

Bailey, J., Flynn, A., and Henry, N. eds. Emerald International Handbook on Technology-Facilitated Violence and Abuse (UK: Emerald Publishing, 2021).

Bailey, J. and Liliefeldt, R. (2021) “Calling All Stakeholders:  An intersectoral dialogue about collaborating to end technology-facilitated violence and abuseHandbook on Technology-facilitated Violence and Abuse: Perspectives and Experiences, Bailey, J., Nicola Henry and Asher Flynn (eds). Emerald Publishing.

Bailey, Jane, Jacquelyn Burkell, Suzie Dunn, Chandell Gosse and Valerie Steeves. (2021). “Artificial Intelligence, Technology-facilitated Violence and Abuse” in Florian Martin-Bariteau and Teresa Scassa (eds.), Artificial Intelligence and the Law in Canada.Toronto: Lexis-Nexis.

Burkell, J., and Gosse, C. (Forthcoming 2020). Misogyny under the microscope: Emphasizing the social and cultural effects of face-swapping technology. Digital Culture and Society.

Dunn, S., Bailey, J,. and Msosa,Y. (2020). “Stand by Me: Viewing Bystander Intervention Programming Through an Intersectional Lens” in Critical Conversations about Sexual Violence on University Campuses: New Challenges, Novel Solutions, Diane Crocker, Joanne Minaker, Amanda Nelund (eds).

Bailey, J., and Burkell, J. (2020). Legal remedies for online attacks: Young people’s perspectives. The Annual Review of Interdisciplinary Justice Research, 9.

Burkell, J., and Gosse, C. (2019). Nothing new here: Emphasizing the social and cultural context of deepfakes. First Monday. 24(12).

Bailey, J. (2019). “Implicitly Feminist?: The Supreme Court of Canada’s Reasons in R v Jarvis.” CJWL 32(1): 196-220.

Bailey, J. and Mathen, C. (2019). “Technology-facilitated Violence Against Women and Girls: Assessing the Canadian Criminal Law Response.Canadian Bar Review 97(3): 665-696.

Burkell, J., and Bailey, J. (2018). Equality at stake: Connecting the privacy/vulnerability cycle to the debate about publicly accessible online court recordsCanadian Journal of Comparative and Contemporary Law, 4(1), 67-114.

Bailey, J. (2017). From ‘zero tolerance’ to ‘safe and accepting’: Surveillance and equity implications of educational policy related to ‘cyberbullying. Education & Law Journal, 26: 146-162.

Dunn, S., Lalonde, J., & Bailey, J. (2017). Terms of silence: Addressing weaknesses in corporate and law enforcement responses to cyberviolence against girls. Girlhood, 10(2): 80-96.

Robinson, A. (2017). An interview with Jane Bailey. Law Times, 28(34): 5-10.

Bailey, J. (2016). Canadian legal approaches to “cyberbullying” and cyberviolence: An overview. Ottawa Faculty of Law Papers.

Hasham, A. (2016, June 3). Proving sexual intent in voyeurism cases a challenge for courts. The Star. Retrieved from: 

Shade, L. (2016). Amy Adele Hasinoff, sexting panic: rethinking criminalization, Privacy and ConsentNew Media and Society, 18(4), 686-688.

Bailey, J. (2014). Time to unpack the juggernaut?: reflections on the Canadian Federal Parliamentary Debates on ‘cyberbullying’Dalhousie Law Journal, 37(2): 661-708.

Bailey, J. (2014). ‘Sexualized online bullying’ through an equality lens: Missed opportunity in AB v. Bragg? McGill Law Journal, 59(3), 709-737.

Bailey, J. & Steeves, V..  (2013).  Will the real digital girl please stand up? In Hille Koskela and Macgregor Wise (Eds.), New Visualities, New Technologies: The New Ecstasy of Communication. London: Ashgate Publishing.

Bailey, J., Steeves, V., Burkell, J., & Regan, P. (2013). Negotiating with gender stereotypes on social networking sites: From ‘Bicycle Face’ to Facebook. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 37, 91-112.

  • Privacy (Child Rights)

Bailey, J. and Ford, V. (2022). “Parenting in the Shadow of Corporate Surveillance:  Reflections on children’s privacy after widespread pandemic-induced adoption of education technology” Mothering/Internet/Kids, Fiona Green and Jaqueline Rogers (eds). Demeter Press.

Burkell, J., Regan, P., and Steeves, V. (Forthcoming 2021). “Privacy, Consent, and Confidentiality in Social Media Research,” Sage Handbook of Social Media Research (2nd ed) ed by Anabel Quan-Haase.

Steeves, V. (2021). Hide and seek: Surveillance of Young People on the Internet. In Theoharis Yannis & Kaniadakis Antonios (eds.) The New Digital Surveillance (Athens: Papazisi Publishers), published in Greek.

Regan, P., Shade, L., and Chan, S. (2020). “Digital Privacy Policy Literacy: A Framework for Canadian Youth” in Handbook on Media Education Researchedited by Divina Frau Meigs, Sirkku Kotilainen, Manisha Pathak-Shelat together with Michael Hoechsmann and Stuart R. Poyntz. Wiley/IAMCR.

Steeves, V., & Macenaite, M. (2022). Data protection and children’s online privacy. In G. González Fuster, R. Van Brakel, & P. De Hert (Eds.), Research handbook on privacy and data protection law: Values, norms and global politics. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Steeves, V. (Forthcoming). Theorizing privacy in a liberal democracy: Canadian jurisprudence, anti-terrorism, and social memory after 9/11. Theoretical Inquiries in Law, 20(1).

Smith, K., Shade L., & Shepherd, T. (2017). Open privacy badges for digital policy literacyInternational Journal of Communication, 11, 2784-2805.

Regan, P. (2016). Big data and privacy. In J. Bachner, K. Wagner Hill, & B. Ginsberg (Eds.), Analytics, policy and governance. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Obar, J. & Shade L. (2016). Activating the fifth estate: Bill C-30 and the digitally-mediated public watchdog. In Jonathan Obar, Des Freedman, Robert McChesney, and Cheryl Martens (Eds.), Strategies for Media Reform (pp.39-57). NY: Fordham University Press.

Shepherd, T., & Shade, L. (2016). La vie privée des jeunes en ligne: enjeux de politiques publiques et d’éducation au Québec et au Canada. In Normand Landry et Anne-Sophie Letellier (Eds.), Éducation aux médias: fondations, enjeux et politiques. Montréal: Presses de l’Université de Montréal.

Steeves, V.  (2016). Now you see me: Privacy, technology and autonomy in the digital age. In Gordon DiGiacomo (Ed.), Human Rights: Current Issues and Controversies (pp.461-482). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Bailey, J. & Steeves, V. (2015). eGirls, eCitizens.  Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.  Available for free download through a Creative Commons licence.

Steeves, V.  (2015). Privacy, sociality and the failure of regulation: Lessons learned from young Canadians’ online experiences.  In Beate Roessler and Dorota Mokrosinska (Eds.), Social Dimensions of Privacy: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (pp.244-260). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Steeves, V. & Regan. P. (2015). Young people online and the social value of privacy. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, 12(4): 298-313.

  • Big Data and Algorithmic Discrimination (Law and Policy)

Bailey, J., Burkell, J., and Steeves, V. (2020). “AI technologies-like police facial recognition – discriminate against people of colour” The Conversation.

Steeves, V. (2019).  “People In, People Out: Why Big Data Need Human Rights.” Human Rights Yearbook. Ottawa, Canada: Human Rights Research and Education Centre.

Bailey, J. (2018). Democratic Rights in a Technocratic Age:  When Constitutions (in Law) Are Not Enough. In The Law Society of Upper Canada, Special Lectures 2017: Canada at 150: The Charter and the Constitution. Toronto: Irwin Law.

Bailey, J., & Shayan, S. (2017). Systematic access to private sector data in Canada. In F. H. Cate & J.X. Dempsey (Eds.), Bulk collection: Systematic access to private sector data. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Bailey, J. & Steeves, V. (2016). Big Data, social norms and discrimination: Lessons from The eGirls Project. Prepared for the Open Society Foundation.

Burkell, J. (2016). Remembering me: Big Data, individual identity, and the psychological necessity of forgettingEthics and Information Technology18(1), 17-23. 

Padovani, C., & Shade, L. (2016). Introduction to the special issue: Gendering global media policy: Critical perspectives on “digital agendas”Journal of Information Policy, 6, 332-337.

Shade, L. (2016). Integrating gender into Canadian Internet policy: From the information highway to the digital economy. Journal of Information Policy, 6, 338-370.


  • Intersectionality

Bailey, J. (Forthcoming 2021). “Confronting ‘Cognitive Imperialism’:  what reconstituting a contracts law school course is teaching me about law” Royally Wronged, Constance Backhouse and Cynthia Milton (eds). Montreal:  McGill University Press.

Bailey, J., Burkell, J., and Steeves, V. (2021). “Young Canadians deserve better with the Digital Charter Implementation Act”.  The Hill Times.

Steeves, V., McAleese, S., and Brisson-Boivin, K. (2020). “Young Canadians in a Wired World, Phase IV: Talking to Youth and Parents about Online Resiliency.  Ottawa: MediaSmarts.

Bailey, J. (2016). Gendering big brother: What should a feminist do? Journal of Law & Equality, 12, 157.

Bailey, J., Steeves, V., Burkell, J., Shade, L., & Regan, P. (2019). Getting at Equality: Research Methods Informed by the Lessons of Intersectionality. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 18, 1-13.

  • Research on Issues Regarding Ethics and Social Media, and Ethics, Social Media and Youth

Burkell, J., and Regan, P. (2021) “Expression in the Virtual Public: Social Justice Considerations in Harvesting Youth Online Discussions for Research Purposes,” Studies in Social Justice, vol. 15, #3 (2021), 397-413.

Georas, C., Bailey, J. and Steeves, V. (2021). Ethical Dilemmas in Resistance Art Workshops with Youth. Studies in Social Justice (Special issue on Youth and Social Media: From Vulnerability to Empowerment & Equality).  Studies in Social Justice 15(3): 355-374.

Steeves, V., McAleese, S. & Brisson-Boivin, K. (2020). Young Canadians in a Wired World, Phase IV: Talking to Youth and Parents about Online Resiliency. Ottawa: MediaSmarts.

Shade, L. & Mersereau, M. (2017). Participatory action research (PAR) and youth participatory action research (YPAR): A Literature Review. Toronto, ON: The eQuality Project.

Burkell, J., & Fortier, A. (2016). Display and control in online social spaces: Toward a typology of usersNew Media and Society.

Keilty, P., & Shade, L. (2016). Feminist and Queer approaches to technoscienceScholar & Feminist Online, 13.3-14.1.

Bailey, J. & Steeves, V. (2016). Living in the mirror: Understanding young women’s experiences with online social networking. In E. van de Muelen and R. Heyden (Eds.), Expanding the Gaze: Gender, Public Space and Surveillance. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Steeves, V. (2012). Young Canadians in a wired world phase III: Talking to youth and parents about life onlineOttawa: MediaSmarts.